MIAMI (AP) — A pesar de la multitud de protestas de grupos de derechos civiles en Estados Unidos luego que el jurado absolvió a George Zimmerman por la muerte a disparos del adolescente negro desarmado Trayvon Martin, es improbable que haya cambios en las leyes de defensa propia del país.

Ni siquiera parece que hará alguna diferencia una solicitud que hizo el presidente Barack Obama de un examen detallado del caso e incluso una sentada como las de la década de 1960 en la oficina del gobernador de Florida.

"Estoy a favor de defender tu terreno", dijo la semana pasada Jan Brewer, gobernador republicano de Arizona.

"No veo ninguna razón para cambiarlo", dijo el gobernador de Georgia Nathan Deal, también republicano.

Según la Conferencia Nacional de Legislaturas Estatales, por lo menos 22 estados tienen leyes similares a la de Florida. Muchos de ellos son conservadores y se inclinan por las leyes que defienden los derechos de los propietarios de armas.

Hasta el momento, no parece que Florida ni otros estados estén interesados en derogar o modificar las leyes, que generalmente eliminan el deber de una persona de retirarse frente a una amenaza física grave. De hecho, algunos estados se están inclinando por la dirección opuesta.

"El debate sobre las leyes de defensa propia reproduce en gran medida las divisiones existentes en la política estadounidense, especialmente entre negros y blancos y entre demócratas y republicanos", dijo John Sides, profesor asociado de ciencias políticas de la Universidad George Washington.

Zimmerman, de 29 años y ex vigilante voluntario de barrio, fue absuelto este mes del cargo de asesinato en segundo grado y homicidio por dispararle a Martin, de 17 años, en una comunidad amurallada de Sanford, Florida, en 2012.

Zimmerman dijo a la Policía que le disparó Martin sólo después de que el adolescente negro lo atacó físicamente, mientras que familiares y partidarios de Martin dicen que Zimmerman, que se identifica como hispano, pensó que Martin era un criminal potencial simplemente por su raza y lo siguió erróneamente.

Los abogados de Zimmerman decidieron no buscar una audiencia de inmunidad previa al juicio, permitida bajo la ley de defensa propia de Florida. Sin embargo, la jueza de circuito Debra Nelson dijo a los miembros del jurado que deberían absolver a Zimmerman si encontraban que "no tenía el deber de retirarse y que tenía el derecho de defender su terreno y combatir la fuerza con fuerza, incluida la fuerza letal, si creía razonablemente que era necesario".

Antes de que se aprobara la ley de defensa propia en 2005, la instrucción habría sido que Zimmerman "no puede justificar el uso de la fuerza capaz de provocar la muerte o lesiones corporales si pudo haber evitado la necesidad de utilizar la fuerza retirándose".

Desde que la ley fue promulgada, los homicidios justificables en Florida han aumentado de un promedio anual de 13,2 entre 2001 y 2005 a 42 entre 2006 y 2012, incluyendo un récord de 66 en 2012, según el Departamento de Policía de Florida. Datos de la Oficina Federal de Investigación (FBI) han mostrado aumentos similares en algunos estados que promulgaron leyes equiparables, como Texas, mientras que otros no han visto un repunte.

Además de Florida, estos estados tienen leyes de defensa propia: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Luisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, Nueva Hampshire, Carolina del Norte, Carolina del Sur, Oklahoma, Pensilvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah y Virginia Occidental.

En un discurso que el ministro de Justicia Eric Holder pronunció la semana pasada en la convención de la organización de derechos civiles NAACP en Orlando, dijo que el caso de Martin demuestra la necesidad de volver a examinar las leyes de defensa propia en todo el país. Dijo que "amplían sin sentido el concepto de defensa propia" y aumentan la posibilidad de enfrentamientos mortales.

El viernes Obama dijo que la nación tenía que hacer un poco de "examen de conciencia". Se preguntó si la ley realmente podía promover la paz y la seguridad si enviaba un mensaje de que alguien que está armado "tiene el derecho de utilizar las armas de fuego, incluso si hay una manera de que salga de la situación".

Líderes de derechos civiles, entre ellos el reverendo Al Sharpton, dijeron que presionarían para que las leyes sean derogadas, empezando por Florida, donde un grupo de jóvenes manifestantes ocuparon la oficina del gobernador republicano Rick Scott para exigir cambios.

"Si podemos hacerlo en Florida, podemos afectar a otros estados", dijo Sharpton la semana pasada.

El sábado, la Red de Acción Nacional de Sharpton organizó manifestaciones para pedir "Justicia para Trayvon" en más de 100 ciudades. Además de pedir cargos federales de derechos civiles en contra de Zimmerman, las manifestaciones atacaron las leyes de defensa propia.

El periodista de The Associated Press Kyle Hightower en Orlando y Philip Elliott en Washington contribuyeron a este despacho.

Curt Anderson está en Twitter como: http://twitter.com/Miamicurt

TEMA RELACIONADO:

Loading Slideshow...
  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: A woman holding a can of ice tea and bag of Skittles candy and hundreds of protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Mimi Kennedy holding a sign along with hundreds of protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: A chalk outline, a bag of Skittles, and a can of iced tea are seen during a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Theo Hornbacher, 14, (C) and his brother Noah Hornbacher, 11, (R) along with hundreds of protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • CHICAGO, IL - JULY 20: Demonstrators attend a 'Justice For Trayvon' rally at Federal Plaza in the Loop July 20, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. The rally was one of a scheduled 100 to be held in cities across the country today to protest a Florida jury's decision last week to find neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in the February 2012 shooting death of Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • LOS ANGELES, CA - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside Los Angeles Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Los Angeles, United States. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • CHICAGO, IL - JULY 20: Five-year-old Liberty Cunningham holds a poster of Trayvon Martin as she sits on her father's shoulders during a 'Justice For Trayvon' rally July 20, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. The rally was one of a scheduled 100 to be held in cities across the country today to protest a Florida jury's decision last week to find neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in the February 2012 shooting death of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • CHICAGO, IL - JULY 20: Five-year-old Liberty Cunningham holds a poster of Trayvon Martin as she sits on the shoulders of her father Travis during a 'Justice For Trayvon' rally July 20, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. The rally was one of a scheduled 100 to be held in cities across the country today to protest a Florida jury's decision last week to find neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in the February 2012 shooting death of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • CHICAGO, IL - JULY 20: Demonstrators attend a 'Justice For Trayvon' rally at Federal Plaza in the Loop July 20, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. The rally was one of a scheduled 100 to be held in cities across the country today to protest a Florida jury's decision last week to find neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in the February 2012 shooting death of Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • CHICAGO, IL - JULY 20: Demonstrators attend a 'Justice For Trayvon' rally at Federal Plaza in the Loop July 20, 2013 in Chicago, Illinois. The rally was one of a scheduled 100 to be held in cities across the country today to protest a Florida jury's decision last week to find neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in the February 2012 shooting death of Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: Protesters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)

  • WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 20: A woman wipes away a tear as protersters take part in a 'Justice for Trayvon' vigil outside the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse July 20, 2013 in Washington, DC. The vigil, along with others held nationwide, was organized by the National Action Network and called for federal charges to be filed against George Zimmerman in the shooting death of teenager Trayvon Martin. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)