la-opinion

Los programas de trabajo temporales H2A y H2B, claves en la contratación anual de alrededor de 100,000 mexicanos hacia Estados Unidos presentan "fallas fundamentales" como la falta de monitoreo, reglas y transparencia que la Reforma Migratoria debe revisar.

"Los congresistas en EEUU ven al trabajo temporal como un componente central en la Reforma Migratoria, pero detrás de éste hay un mito de victoria que no siempre coincide con la realidad", dijo Rachel Micha Jones, del bilateral centro de los Derechos del Migrante (CDM).

Este organismo de abogados con sedes en Washington, el Distrito Federal y Oaxaca, documenta desde 2005 abusos como cobro de cuotas a los interesados y fraudes por parte de empleadores, reclutadores o falsos intermediarios.

De acuerdo con las normatividades mexicana y estadounidense, un trabajador que labora en el campo o en oficios como construcción, carpintería, plomería, herrería, etcétera – el perfil de H2A y H2B- no debe pagar ni un solo centavo en el proceso de contratación y traslado.

Sin embargo, el informe Revelando el Reclutamiento, Fallas Fundamentales de Trabajadores Temporales H2 y Recomendaciones para el Cambio, presentado ayer por CDM, reveló que el 58% de los mexicanos contratados pagó hasta 1,750 dólares.

Para cubrirla, el 47% pidió un préstamo a familiares, amigos, al banco o usureros. "Entregaron escrituras de sus casas, sus terrenos y bienes a tasas que van desde el 5% al 79%", precisó Jones.

Con todas las complicaciones de la deuda, la situación puede ser peor porque algunas compañías norteamericanas ofrecen un tipo de trabajo y salario, pero una vez que los empleados se encuentran en el campo laboral, cambian las reglas.

Samuel -un caso presentado por CDM- fue contratado en Durango (norte) con la promesa de pago por parte de la empresa Peter's Fine Greek Food de 10.71 dólares por hora en Nueva York, en 2010, pero lo que encontró allá fue un salario de un dólar por hora y turnos de entre 16 y 18 horas al día.

El problema con este tipo de violaciones -explica Jones- es que "si las condiciones de trabajo no son cumplidas, ellos no pueden renunciar porque tienen obligaciones por pagar".

La situación puede ser más grave si la deuda se adquiere para plazas inexistentes como ocurrió a decenas de personas del municipio de Ciudad Maíz, San Luis Potosí, en mayo pasado.

En conferencia de prensa, Elisa Marínez, habitante de la región, contó que un timador pidió hasta 9,000 pesos para realizar trámites de visas temporales para trabajar en pollerías, empacadoras de camarón y la construcción.

Después que 168 personas entregaron dinero, se desapareció. "Nos engañaron porque teníamos la ilusión".

CDM sugirió al gobierno mexicano una fuerte campaña nacional para evitar que los trabajadores que busquen visas H2A y H2B paguen cuotas por reclutamiento.

Al congreso norteamericano recomendó promulgar leyes que responsabilicen a los empleadores de todos los gastos de reclutamiento cobrados por la vía ilegal y extender fondos federales para acceso de los temporales a servicios legales.

También pidió un registro público de reclutadores para transparentar el proceso y establecer protecciones contra represalias para los empleados que reporten abusos y exigir que todas las "job orders" sirvan como contratos "exigibles" y "ejecutables".

Como un punto de partida y guía para trabajadores temporales H2A y H2B en México, CDM creó el sitio web www.reclutamientotransparente.org que incluye una lista de empleadores y reclutadores en los dos países, el tipo de trabajo por zona de contratación y los abusos documentados.

Cifras
- 58% de los trabajadores temporales reportan haber pagado una cuota de reclutamiento a pesar de estar prohibida en las normatividades mexicana y estadounidense.

- 47% pidió un préstamo para cubrir gastos y costos de pre-empleo.

- 52% no se les mostró un contrato

- Uno de cada 10 reportó haber pagado una cuota por un trabajo inexistente.

FUENTE: Revelando el Reclutamiento. Fallas Fundamentales en el Programa de Trabajadores Temporales H2 y Recomendaciones para el Cambio.

la-opinion

Loading Slideshow...
  • Immigration Reform

  • Activists Rally For Comprehensive Immigration Reform In Washington

    WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 08: Latinos and immigrants participate in a rally on immigration reform in front of the White House on November 8, 2012 in Washington, DC. Immigrant rights organizations called on President Barack Obama to fulfill his promise of passing comprehensive immigration reform. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

  • Members of immigration rights organizations, including Casa in Action and Maryland Dream Act, demonstrate in front of the White House in Washington, Thursday, Nov. 8, 2012, calling on President Barack Obama to fulfill his promise of passing comprehensive immigration reform. (AP Photo/Cliff Owen)

  • FILE - In this Tuesday, June 15, 2010 file photo, immigration reform advocates march around the Federal Courthouse in downtown Denver. The group, which had more than 100 protesters, marched from the Colorado state Capitol to the federal courts to call for changes in the nation's immigration laws. Colorado's results for the 2012 presidential election will undoubtedly turn, in part, on Hispanics, who account for about 20 percent of the population in the state, and have, so far, overwhelmingly favored the president. Immigration actually ranks third in importance in polling of Hispanics, with the economy and education rating No. 1 and No. 2, says Floyd Ciruli, a Denver pollster. But, he says, "it's almost a litmus test issue - do you have at least sympathy and understand the issues we're dealing with?" (AP Photo/David Zalubowski)

  • Barack Obama

    FILE - In this May 10, 2011 file photo, audience members listen to President Barack Obama speak about immigration reform at Chamizal National Memorial Park in El Paso, Texas. In advance of the November presidential election, the Obama campaign is wooing Hispanics with TV and radio ad campaigns accentuating positive messages. (AP Photo/Charles Dharapak, File)

  • FILE - In this Sept. 26, 2011 photo, college student Jasmine Oliver, of Warwick, R.I., top left, and Javier Gonzalez, of Pawtucket, R.I., top right, display a banner and shout their support for allowing illegal immigrants to pay in-state tuition rates while attending public colleges in the state, during a Board of Governors of Higher Education meeting on the campus of the Community College of Rhode Island, in Warwick, R.I. But research varies on the effects of resident tuition rates for illegal immigrants, including on enrollment, and students may still face a tough road even if they graduate with a college degree: Without passage of the DREAM Act or other federal immigration reform, illegal immigrant students have no pathway to legal status, and it remains illegal for employers to hire them. (AP Photo/Steven Senne, File)

  • Antony Lopez, 10, left, Hillary Lopez, 11, and Angelita Lopez, 6, all of Arlington, Va., wear shirts that read "Don't Deport My Mom" next to their mother, Viviana Oxlaj, during a rally in support of immigration reform and the DREAM Act in Lafayette Park outside the White House in Washington, on Tuesday, July 26, 2011. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

  • Luis Gutierrez

    Supporters of the DREAM Act, including Rep. Luis Gutierrez, D-Ill., third from right, wait to be arrested while performing an act of civil disobedience at a rally for supporting the DREAM Act and immigration reform outside the White House in Washington, on Tuesday, July 26, 2011. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

  • FILE - In this Jan. 24, 2012 file photo, immigrant advocates use an image of New Mexico Gov. Susana Martinez on a mock state driver's license during a rally in Santa Fe. A new poll has found that nearly three-fourths of New Mexico voters oppose a state law that allows immigrant immigrants to obtain driver’s licenses. The poll commissioned by The Albuquerque Journal found that 71 percent of the state’s likely voters are against the 2003 state law. (AP Photo/Russell Contreras,File)

  • US-VOTE-2012-DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION

    A demonstrator holds a sign supporting rights for undocumented immigrants at the 'March On Wall Street South' rally in Charlotte, North Carolina, ahead of the Democratic National Convention on September 2, 2012. Hundreds of people chanting slogans and carrying signs against and for an assortment of different causes marched through the city to protest what they said was seedy corporate influence on politics. AFP PHOTO / ROBYN BECK (Photo credit should read ROBYN BECK/AFP/GettyImages)

  • FILE - In this July 15, 2011 file photo, demonstrators hold signs in New York during a rally to condemn an immigration and customs enforcement program known as Secure Communities, and ICE's alleged refusal to meet with directly impacted immigrants. The signs read in Spanish "Deportations destroy our families." (AP Photo/Mary Altaffer, File)

  • Tanya Hernandez

    Tanya Hernandez, 4, demonstrates at a pro-immigration rally with others with the Coalition for Humane Immigration Rights, Tuesday June 26, 2012 at City Hall in Los Angeles. The group was reacting to Monday's Supreme Court decision to overturn three parts of the Arizona law but uphold a section that requires police to check the status of people who might appear to be in the U.S. illegally. (AP Photo/Nick Ut)

  • Dozens of demonstrators protest at a "Right to Dream" rally Thursday May 17, 2012 in Los Angeles. The demonstrators were protesting the deportation of illegal immigrants by the Obama Administration. (AP Photo/Nick Ut)

  • Maria Sofia, Malendez Campos,

    Students Maria Sofia, left, and Malendez Campos, protest at a "Right to Dream" rally Thursday May 17, 2012 in Los Angeles. The Demonstrators were protesting the deportation of illegal immigrants by the Obama Administration. (AP Photo/Nick Ut)

  • Activists Protest Outside Immigration Court Building In Chicago

    CHICAGO, IL - MAY 15: Father Jose Landaverde and Emma Lazano sit in front of the building which houses immigration court during a protest May 15, 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The two where later arrested along with at least two others at the protest where demonstrators were calling for immigration reform. This was the second day of protests in what is expected to be a full week of demonstrations as the city prepares to host the NATO Summit May 20-21. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)